Project A05 includes three 7T fMRI studies, two 3T fMRI studies and one behavioral study. Two of the 7T fMRI experiments (study 1 and 2) will be performed in the first two years of funding. The behavioral study (study 5) will start during the first year. The 3T fMRI experiments (study 3 and 4) will start in the second year. Study 3 makes use of the optimized cerebellar tDCS parameters established in the first year in A06. Study 4 will be performed in cerebellar patients. We expect data acquisition of studies 3–5 to be finished by the end of the third year. In the fourth year the tDCS set-up will be brought to the 7T MR scanner (study 6).
Guiding questions of A05:
Batsikadze G, Rezaee Z, Chang DI, Gerwig M, Herlitze S, Dutta A, Nitsche MA, Timmann D (2019) Effects of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation on cerebellar-brain inhibition in humans: A systematic evaluation. Brain Stimul. 12: 1177–1186.
Brunheim S, Johst S, Pfaffenrot V, Maderwald S, Quick HH, Poser BA (2017) Variable slice thickness (VAST) EPI for the reduction of susceptibility artifacts in whole-brain GE-EPI at 7 Tesla. MAGMA. 30: 591–607.
Ernst TM, Thürling M, Müller S, Kahl F, Maderwald S, Schlamann M, Boele HJ, Koekkoek SKE, Diedrichsen J, De Zeeuw CI, Ladd ME, Timmann D (2017) Modulation of 7 T fMRI signal in the cerebellar cortex and nuclei during acquisition, extinction, and reacquisition of conditioned eyeblink responses. Hum Brain Mapp. 38: 3957–3974.
Ernst TM, Brol AE, Gratz M, Ritter C, Bingel U, Schlamann M, Maderwald S, Quick HH, Merz CJ, Timmann D (2019) The cerebellum is involved in processing of predictions and prediction errors in a fear conditioning paradigm. eLife. 8: e46831.
Inoue L, Ernst TM, Ferber II, Merz CJ, Timmann D, Batsikadze G (2020) Interaction of fear conditioning with eyeblink conditioning supports the sensory gating hypothesis of the amygdala in men. ENeuro. 7(5).
Küper M, Mallick JS, Ernst T, Kraff O, Thürling M, Stefanescu MR, Göricke S, Nitsche MA, Timmann D (2019) Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation modulates the fMRI signal in the cerebellar nuclei in a simple motor task. Brain Stimul. 12: 1169–1176.
Lipp J, Draganova R, Batsikadze G, Ernst TM, Uengoer M, Timmann D (2020) Prefrontal but not cerebellar tDCS attenuates renewal of extinguished conditioned eyeblink responses. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 170: 107137.
Pfaffenrot V, Brunheim S, Rietsch SHG, Koopmans PJ, Ernst TM, Kraff O, Orzada S, Quick HH (2018) An 8/15-channel Tx/Rx head neck RF coil combination with region-specific B1 + shimming for whole-brain MRI focused on the cerebellum at 7T. Magn Reson Med. 80: 1252–1265.
Steiner KM, Jansen S, Adeishvili N, Hulst T, Ernst TM, Müller O, Wondzinski E, Göricke SL, Siebler M, Uengoer M, Timmann D (2020) Extinction of cognitive associations is preserved in patients with cerebellar disease. Neurobiol Learn Mem. 169: 107185.
Thürling M, Kahl F, Maderwald S, Stefanescu RM, Schlamann M, Boele HJ, de Zeeuw CI, Diedrichsen J, Ladd ME, Koekkoek SK, Timmann D (2015) Cerebellar cortex and cerebellar nuclei are concomitantly activated during eyeblink conditioning: a 7T fMRI study in humans. J Neurosci. 35: 1228–1239.